Manual Testing Interview questions

Here, we have laid down the 50 most essential manual testing interview questions and answers Set-1. Any tester who is preparing for a job change or wish to acquaint himself with the nitty-gritty of the software testing should read this post for quick results.

1. What is a Bug?
When actual result deviates from the expected result while testing a software application or product then it results into a defect. Hence, any deviation from the specification mentioned in the product functional specification document is a defect. In different organizations it’s called a Bug.

2. What is a Defect?
If software misses some feature or function from what is there in requirement it is called as defect.

3. What is CMM?
The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.

4. What is Beta Testing?
Beta testing is testing of a release of a software product conducted by customers.

5. What is Black Box Testing?
Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component.

6. What is Bottom Up Testing?
An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

7. What is Boundary Testing?
Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).

8. What is Boundary Value Analysis?
BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on “corner cases” or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. This means that if a function expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001.

9. What is Branch Testing?
Testing of all branches in the program source code is called Branch Testing.

10. What is Coding?
The generation of source code is called Coding.

11. What is Compatibility Testing?
Testing whether software is compatible with other elements of a system with which it should operate, e.g. browsers, Operating Systems, or hardware.

12. What is a Component?
A component is an identifiable part of a larger program or construction. Usually, a component provides a particular function or group of related functions.

13. What is Component Testing?
Testing of individual software components is called Component testing.

14. What is Acceptance Testing?
Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.

15. What is Accessibility Testing?
Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).

16. What is Ad Hoc Testing?
A testing phase where the tester tries to ‘break’ the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality is called Ad Hoc testing. This can include negative testing also.

17. What is Agile Testing?
Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm. See also Test Driven Development.

18. What is Application Binary Interface (ABI)?
A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across different system platforms and environments is called Application Binary Interface (ABI).

19. What is Application Programming Interface (API)?
A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services is called Application Programming Interface (API).

20. What is Automated Software Quality (ASQ)?
The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools; to improve software quality is called Automated Software Quality (ASQ).

21. What is Automated Testing?
Testing employing software tools which execute tests without manual intervention is called Automated Testing. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing. The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.

22. What is Backus-Naur Form?
It is a meta-language used to formally describe the syntax of a language.

23. What is Basic Block?
A sequence of one or more consecutive, executable statements containing no branches is called Basic Block.

24. What is Basis Path Testing?
A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.

25. What is Basis Set?
The set of tests derived using basis path testing.

26. What is Baseline?
The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control.

27. What you will do during the first day of job?
Few things that you should be doing on the first day of your job are
1. Reach office at least 15 minutes early
2. Be calm and relaxed
3. Have a smile on your face
4. Don’t be shy
5. Don’t try too hard to impress your colleagues
6. If you’re offered to go have lunch with your new boss and co-workers then you should go. It’s important to show that you’re ready to mingle with your new team.
7. Pay attention to how decisions are made.

28. What is Binary Portability Testing?
Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification is called Binary Portability Testing.

29. What is Breadth Testing?
A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail is called Breadth Testing.

30. What is CAST?
Computer Aided Software Testing refers to the computing-based processes, techniques and tools for testing software applications or programs.

31. What is Capture/Replay Tool?
A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.

32. What is Cause Effect Graph?
A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects which can be used to design test cases.

33. What is Code Complete?
Phase of development where functionality is implemented entirety; bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented.

34. What is Code Coverage?
An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention.

35. What is Code Inspection?
A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews source code with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards. Know more about the Inspection in software testing.

36. What is Code Walkthrough?
A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a group with a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer’s logic and assumptions. Know more about Walkthrough in software testing.

37. What is Concurrency Testing?
Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores.

38. What is Conformance Testing?
Conformance testing, also known as compliance testing, is a methodology used in engineering to ensure that a product, process, computer program or system meets a defined set of standards.

39. What is Context Driven Testing?
The context-driven school of software testing is flavour of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now.

40. What is Conversion Testing?
Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.

41. What is Cyclomatic Complexity?
A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white-box testing is called Cyclomatic Complexity.

42. What is Data Dictionary?
A database that contains definitions of all data items defined during analysis.

43. What is Data Flow Diagram?
A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the “flow” of data through an information system, modeling its process aspects.

44. What is Data Driven Testing?
Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. This is a common technique used in Automated Testing.

45. What is Debugging?
The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures is called Debugging.

46. What is Defect?
When actual result deviates from the expected result while testing a software application or product then it results into a defect.

47. What is Dependency Testing?
Dependency Testing, a testing technique in which an application’s requirements are pre-examined for an existing software, initial states in order to test the proper functionality. The impacted areas of the application are also tested when testing the new features or existing features.

48. What is Depth Testing?
A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail is called Depth testing.

49. What is Dynamic Testing?
Testing software through executing it is called Dynamic testing. Also know about Static Testing.

50. What is Emulator?
A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs in a given system is called Emulator.


51. What is Endurance Testing?
Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.

52. What is End-to-End testing?
Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate is called End-to-End testing.

53. What is Equivalence Class?
A portion of a component’s input or output domains for which the component’s behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component’s specification.

54. What is Equivalence Partitioning?
A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.

55. What is Exhaustive Testing?
Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.

56. What is Functional Decomposition?
A technique used during planning, analysis and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software.

57. What is Functional Specification?
A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features is called Functional Specification.

58. What is Functional Testing?
Testing the features and operational behaviour of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications. Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions. or Black Box Testing.

59. What is Glass Box Testing?
White Box Testing is also known as Glass Box testing.

60. What is Gorilla Testing?
Gorilla Testing is a testing technique in which sometimes developers also join hands with testers to test a particular module thoroughly in all aspects.

61. What is Gray Box Testing?
A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies is called Gray box testing. Testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.

62. What is High Order Tests?
Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.

63. What is Independent Test Group (ITG)?
A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing. Know more about Independent testing

64. What is Inspection?
A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).

65. What is Integration Testing?
After integrating two different components together we do the integration testing. Integration testing is usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.

66. What is Installation Testing?
Installation testing is a kind of quality assurance work in the software industry that focuses on what customers will need to do to install and set up the new software successfully. The testing process may involve full, partial or upgrades install/uninstall processes.

67. What is Load Testing?
A load testing is a type of software testing which is conducted to understand the behaviour of the application under a specific expected load.
Also see Performance Testing.

68. What is Localization Testing?
This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.

69. What is Loop Testing?
A white box testing technique that exercises program loops in order to validate them.

70. What is Metric?
Metric is a standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code.

71. What is Monkey Testing?
Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.

72. What is Negative Testing?
Testing aimed at showing software does not work. This is also known as “test to fail”. See also Positive Testing.

73. What is Path Testing?
Testing in which all paths are in the program source code are tested at least once.

74. What is Performance Testing?
Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate large number of users.

75. What is Positive Testing?
Testing aimed at showing software works. This is also known as “test to pass”.

76. What is Quality Assurance?
All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.

77. What is Quality Audit?
A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.

78. What is Quality Circle?
A group of individuals with related interests that meet at regular intervals to consider problems or other matters related to the quality of outputs of a process and to the correction of problems or to the improvement of quality.

79. What is Quality Control?
The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfil and verify requirements of quality.

80. What is Quality Management?
That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy.

81. What is Quality Policy?
In quality management system, a quality policy is a document jointly developed by management and quality experts to express the quality objectives of the organization, the acceptable level of quality and the duties of specific departments to ensure quality.

82. What is Quality System?
The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management is called Quality System.

83. What is Race Condition?
A race condition is an undesirable situation that occurs when a device or system attempts to perform two or more operations at the same time, but because of the nature of the device or system, the operations must be done in the proper sequence to be done correctly.

84. What is Ramp Testing?
Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down.

85. What is Recovery Testing?
Recovery testing confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

86. What is Regression Testing?
Retesting a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made is called Regression testing.

87. What is Release Candidate?
A pre-release version, which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs (which ideally should be removed before the final version is released).

88. What is Sanity Testing?
Brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if its basically operational. See also Smoke Testing.

89. What is Scalability Testing?
Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in work load.

90. What is Security Testing?
Testing which confirms that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.

91. What is Smoke Testing?
In Software testing context, smoke testing refers to testing the basic functionality of the build.

92. What is Soak Testing?
Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time is called Soak testing. For example; run several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) than would be expected in a busy day, to identify the performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed.

93. What is Software Requirements Specification?
A deliverable that describes all data, functional and behavioural requirements, all constraints, and all validation requirements for software/

94. What is Software Testing?
A set of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software.

95. What is Static Analysis?
Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.

96. What is Static Analyzer?
A tool that carries out static analysis is called Static Analyzer.

97. What is Static Testing?
Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.

98. What is Storage Testing?
Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internal storage.

99. What is Stress Testing?
Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how. Often this is performance testing using a very high level of simulated load.

100. What is Structural Testing?
Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. See also White Box Testing.

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